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QUESTION/PROBLEM: Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods

last updated December 22, 1999

Example queries:

What distinguishes qualitative research from quantitative research? When is it appropriate to use each type?

Please illuminate the types of qualitative research methods.

Table of Contents


Qualitative research typically entails in-depth analysis of relatively few subjects for which a rich set of data is collected and organized. Quantitative research entails the proper application of statistics to typically a large number of subjects. When properly applied, quantitative research is arguably much more statistically powerful. Although qualitative research is particularly useful when the researcher is yet unclear about what specific data should be discerned, it is not necessarily generalizable. Nevertheless, case studies communicate well to politicians, school boards, and the like. Quantitative methods help to make generalizations to larger groups and follow a well-established and respected set of statistical procedures, of which the properties are well-understood.

There is an issue regarding proper application of quantitative methods: Many studies are designed poorly, i.e., many studies cannot find a significant difference when one exists, due to insufficient sample sizes or to extremely small effect sizes. Further, quantitative methods are often misinterpreted. We hope that the resources herein not only differentiate between qualitative and quantitative research methods, but also prevent future recurrences of the all-too-prevalent mistakes in the application and interpretation of the latter.

Commentary by Larry Rudner, Director, ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment & Evaluation

[Table of Contents]


Qualitative Research [Index]
Annotated links for pertinent online resources offered by the electronic pathfinder Assessment and Evaluation on the Internet.

Quantitative Data Analysis: An Introduction
U.S. General Accounting Office's full-text report.

Full-Text Library: Statistical Analysis
Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation - full-text resources.

[Table of Contents]

ERIC DOCUMENTS CITATIONS for Qualitative Research

Review Literature re: Qualitative Research
  ED397122  TM025260
  Research Methods Employed in "American Educational Research 
Journal," "Educational Researcher," and "Review of Educational 
Research" from 1978 to 1995.
  Elmore, Patricia B.; Woehlke, Paula L.
  Apr 1996
  21p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  
  A content analysis was conducted of three educational research 
journals published by the American Educational Research Association 
to review the quantitative and qualitative techniques used in 
educational research.  All articles appearing in these three journals 
from 1988 through 1995 (total n=1,715) were considered.  Research 
methods were identified and classified into the following categories: 
(1) descriptive; (2) bivariate correlations; (3) t-test; (4) 
nonparametric statistics; (5) meta-analysis; (6) analysis of variance 
(ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA); (7) psychometric theory; 
(8) multiple correlation and regression; (9) multivariate analysis; 
(10) factor and cluster analysis; (11) LISREL computer program 
analysis; (12) Bayesian statistics; (13) simulation; (14) modeling; 
(15) qualitative methods of several types; and (16) graphic methods.  
Results are consistent with those of other studies in that the most 
commonly used methods were ANOVA and ANCOVA, multiple regression, 
bivariate correlation, descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis, 
nonparametric statistics, and t-tests.  The major difference in 
current methodology is the increase in the use of qualitative methods.  
(Contains 5 tables, 4 graphs, and 18 references.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: Analysis of Covariance; Analysis of Variance; Bayesian 
Statistics; Content Analysis; Correlation; *Educational Research; 
Educational Researchers; Meta Analysis; Multivariate Analysis; 
Nonparametric Statistics; *Psychometrics; *Qualitative Research; 
Regression (Statistics); *Research Methodology; Research Reports; 
*Scholarly Journals; Simulation
  Identifiers: *American Educational Research Association; American 
Educational Research Journal; *Descriptive Research; LISREL Computer 
Program; Review of Educational Research; T Test

  EJ520831  SO527317
  Critical Ethnography: Problems in Contemporary Theory and Practice.
  Jordan, Steve; Yeomans, David
  British Journal of Sociology of Education, v16 n3 p389-408 Sep 
  ISSN: 0142-5692
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Target Audience: Researchers; Administrators; Practitioners
  Asserts that ethnography's development out of anthropology left it 
tainted with biases from colonialism and imperialism.  Discusses 
several contemporary approaches, including critical ethnography, 
really useful knowledge, and action research.  Suggests further 
incorporation of postmodernist ideas into the field of ethnography.  
  Descriptors: *Action Research; Anthropology; Colonialism; 
Consciousness Raising; *Critical Theory; Cultural Awareness; 
Ethnocentrism; *Ethnography; Higher Education; Imperialism; 
Participant Observation; *Qualitative Research; Social Change; 
*Social Science Research; *Theory Practice Relationship
  Identifiers: *Postmodernism

  EJ511929  FL525059
  Asking "Good" Questions: Perspectives from Qualitative Research on 
Practice, Knowledge, and Understanding in Teacher Education.
  Freeman, Donald
  TESOL Quarterly, v29 n3 p581-85 Aut   1995
  Theme issue topic: "Qualitative Research in ESOL."
  ISSN: 0039-8322
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  This article discusses how qualitative research can inform language 
teacher education, focusing on the perspectives of teacher practice, 
knowledge, and understanding that affect teacher education research.  
It argues that researchers need to examine how teachers, students, 
parents, and others involved in the classroom construe their worlds 
and actions.  (21 references) (MDM)
  Descriptors: Classroom Environment; *English (Second Language); 
Higher Education; *Language Research; Language Teachers; *Qualitative 
Research; *Teacher Attitudes; *Teacher Education; *Teaching Methods

  EJ511923  FL525053
  Qualitative Research in Applied Linguistics: A Progress Report.
  Lazaraton, Anne
  TESOL Quarterly, v29 n3 p455-72 Aut   1995
  Theme issue topic: "Qualitative Research in ESOL."
  ISSN: 0039-8322
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  This article describes the status of qualitative research in 
applied linguistics and English as a Second Language (ESL), 
identifying trends through an informal survey of professional 
journals, an examination of relevant qualitative studies and research 
methods texts, and a presentation of the views of researcher 
methodologists.  (88 references) (MDM)
  Descriptors: *Applied Linguistics; Definitions; *English (Second 
Language); *Language Research; *Linguistic Theory; *Qualitative 
Research; *Research Methodology; Research Reports; Scholarly Journals; 
Second Language Learning

  EJ511922  FL525052
  Qualitative Theory and Methods in Applied Linguistics Research.
  Davis, Kathryn A.
  TESOL Quarterly, v29 n3 p427-53 Aut   1995
  Theme issue topic: "Qualitative Research in ESOL."
  ISSN: 0039-8322
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  This article reviews basic issues of theory and method in 
qualitative research approaches to applied linguistics research, 
focusing on the ways in which qualitative research can contribute to 
an understanding of second-language acquisition and use.  (83 
references) (MDM)
  Descriptors: *Applied Linguistics; Data Analysis; Data Collection; 
Ethnography; *Language Research; Language Usage; *Linguistic Theory; 
*Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology; Research Reports; 
*Second Language Learning; Sociolinguistics

  EJ512733  SO526820
  Zooming in on the Qualitative Paradigm in Art Education: 
Educational Criticism, Ethnography, and Action Research.
  Bresler, Liora
  Visual Arts Research, v20 n1 p1-19 Spr   1994
  ISSN: 0736-0770
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
  Target Audience: Researchers; Teachers; Practitioners
  Maintains that within the qualitative paradigm there are related 
approaches with distinct disciplinary and intellectual traditions.  
Examines three genres: (1) educational connoisseurship and criticism; 
(2) ethnography; and (3) action research.  Asserts that understanding 
the assumptions, methods, and contributions of these genres can 
expand art education research.  (CFR)
  Descriptors: *Action Research; Aesthetic Values; Art Appreciation; 
*Art Criticism; Art Teachers; *Educational Research; Elementary 
Secondary Education; *Ethnography; Higher Education; Program 
Improvement; *Qualitative Research; *Sociocultural Patterns; Theory 
Practice Relationship; Visual Arts
  Identifiers: Eisner (Elliot W)

  EJ498200  SE553589
  A Discourse on Methods.
  Schoenfeld, Alan H.
  Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, v25 n6 p697-710 Dec 
  ISSN: 0021-8251
  Available From: UMI
  Discusses the historical context of mathematics education research 
methodologies, describes methodological trends through the "Journal 
for Research in Mathematics Education" focusing on the domain of 
teacher knowledge and practice, and considers theoretical and 
methodological issues of the present and future.  (25 references) 
  Descriptors: *Educational History; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Mathematics Education; *Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology
  Identifiers: *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education; 
*Mathematics Education History; Mathematics Education Research; 
Teacher Knowledge

  EJ490537  CG545534
  Qualitative Methods in Rehabilitation Research.
  Hagner, David C.; Helm, David T.
  Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, v37 n4 p290-303 Jun 
  ISSN: 0034-3552
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Outlines major features of qualitative research methods and 
rehabilitation research contexts for which these methods are 
particularly appropriate.  Presents representative examples of 
qualitative rehabilitation research.  Presents strategies for 
handling threats to reliability and validity within qualitative 
tradition and criteria for assessing adequacy of qualitative studies.  
Includes 42 citations.  (Author/CRR)
  Descriptors: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education; 
*Qualitative Research; *Rehabilitation; Reliability; Validity

  EJ490197  SP523497
  The Cultural Politics of Qualitative Research in Education: 
Confirming and Contesting the Canon.
  Anderson, Gary L.
  Educational Theory, v44 n2 p225-37 Spr   1994
  ISSN: 0013-2004
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  This article is a critical review of the 1992 "Handbook of 
Qualitative Research in Education." The article examines diverse 
approaches to qualitative field research, discusses ambiguous 
relationships between education and parent disciplines, notes how the 
collection represents current dialogue, and examines chapters on 
critical ethnology.  (SM)
  Descriptors: Book Reviews; *Educational Research; Educational 
Theories; Elementary Secondary Education; *Ethnography; Field Studies; 
*Guides; Higher Education; *Qualitative Research; *Research 

 EJ500496  TM518506
  Evaluation: Review of the Past, Preview of the Future.
  Smith, M. F.
  Evaluation Practice, v15 n3 p215-27 Oct   1994
  Special invitational volume: "Past, Present, Future Assessments of 
the Field of Evaluation."
  ISSN: 0886-1633
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  This paper summarized contributors' ideas about evaluation as a 
field and where it is going.  Topics discussed were qualitative 
versus quantitative debate; evaluation's purpose; 
professionalization; program failure; program development; evaluators 
as advocates; evaluation knowledge; evaluation expansion; and 
methodology and design.  (SLD)
  Descriptors: *Evaluation Methods; Evaluation Problems; Evaluation 
Research; *Evaluative Thinking; Evaluators; Expectation; Futures (of 
Society); History; *Intellectual Disciplines; Knowledge Level; 
Objectives; Prediction; Program Development; *Qualitative Research; 
Research and Development; Research Design; *Research Methodology
  Identifiers: *Professionalism

 EJ505285  HE533809
  Grounded Theory and Classroom Research.
  Mann, Mary Pat
  Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, v4 p131-43 
  Journal availability: OAST, Miami Univ., Oxford, OH 45056.
  ISSN: 1052-4800
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Argues that grounded theory, an explicit approach to the analysis 
of qualitative data, is ideal for applied settings and can be adapted 
to the limited, sporadic opportunities available to faculty and 
faculty developers who focus on classroom interaction and social 
relations.  Introduces key features and techniques of this approach.  
  Descriptors: Action Research; College Faculty; College Instruction; 
Educational Quality; Educational Research; Faculty Development; 
Higher Education; *Qualitative Research; Research Design; *Research 
  Identifiers: *Grounded Theory; *Teacher Researchers

  ED360664  CS508248
  Interviewing in Educational Research: A Bibliographic Essay.
  Chu, Felix T.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Different types of interviews serve different purposes; however, 
they all share a common goal of collecting data in different 
situations.  The data may be factual in generating quantitative input 
for a research project, attitudinal in gauging public acceptance of a 
proposed educational policy, or used in gaining a better 
understanding of a certain organizational feature of an educational 
institution.  The normal progression in the interview process is from 
using open-ended questions as ice-breakers to establishing rapport 
with the interviewee, followed by negotiating the format, scope and 
range of the questions.  Many researchers distinguish types of 
interviews by the amount of structure used in the process.  Effective 
use of interviewing in qualitative research has also been discussed 
by researchers.  Types of interviews applicable to educational 
research include: standardized survey interviews, in-depth 
interviews, intensive interviews, the long interview, the focused 
interview, and interviews of elites.  Given the culturally diverse 
and heterogeneous population, problems and biases are becoming more 
apparent.  Variables in the interview process include: race, gender, 
age, educational level, and social status.  Because of cultural and 
linguistic variables, different people attach different degrees of 
importance to the value, worth or intent of certain questions and 
answers.  Treating interviews as discourses and speech events open a 
whole new area for further research.  Contains 31 references.  (RS)
  Descriptors: Cultural Context; *Educational Research; Ethnography; 
Higher Education; *Interviews; Literature Reviews; *Qualitative 
Research; Questioning Techniques; *Research Methodology
  Identifiers: *Communication Strategies; Discourse

  EJ471252  IR527557
  Post-Positivist Research: Two Examples of Methodological Pluralism.
  Wildemuth, Barbara M.
  Library Quarterly, v63 n4 p450-68 Oct   1993
  Special issue: "Symposium on Qualitative Research: Theory, Methods, 
and Applications."
  ISSN: 0024-2519
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
  Discussion of positivist and interpretive approaches to research 
and postpositivism focuses on two studies that apply interpretive 
research in different ways: an exploratory study of user-developed 
computing applications conducted prior to a positivist study and a 
study of end-user searching behaviors conducted concurrently with a 
positivist study.  (Contains 36 references.) (LRW)
  Descriptors: Adoption (Ideas); *Information Science; Medical 
Education; Models; Online Searching; *Qualitative Research; *Research 
  Identifiers: Examples; *Interpretive Research; *Positivism

  EJ471251  IR527556
  Methodological Issues and Practices in Qualitative Research.
  Bradley, Jana
  Library Quarterly, v63 n4 p431-49 Oct   1993
  Special issue: "Symposium on Qualitative Research: Theory, Methods, 
and Applications."
  ISSN: 0024-2519
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
  Discusses methodological issues concerning qualitative research and 
describes research practices that qualitative researchers use to 
address these methodological issues.  Topics discussed include the 
researcher as interpreter, the emergent nature of qualitative 
research, understanding the experience of others, trustworthiness in 
qualitative research, design of the research process, and collection 
and analysis of data.  (Contains 32 references.) (LRW)
  Descriptors: Credibility; Data Analysis; Data Collection; 
Information Science; *Qualitative Research; Research Design; 
Researchers; *Research Methodology

  EJ471250  IR527555
  The Rationale for Qualitative Research: A Review of Principles and 
Theoretical Foundations.
  Sutton, Brett
  Library Quarterly, v63 n4 p411-30 Oct   1993
  Special issue: "Symposium on Qualitative Research: Theory, Methods, 
and Applications."
  ISSN: 0024-2519
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
  Surveys some of the theoretical positions that underlie various 
qualitative research methods and discusses the methodological issues 
raised by those positions for use in library and information science 
research.  Contextualization, understanding, pluralism, and 
expression are discussed; and qualitative research methods are 
compared with a positivist model.  (Contains 39 references.) (LRW)
  Descriptors: Comparative Analysis; *Information Science; *Library 
Research; Models; *Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology
  Identifiers: Contextualization; Pluralism; Positivism; *Theoretical 

  ED362202  IR016358
  Qualitative Research? Quantitative Research? What's the Problem? 
Resolving the Dilemma via a Postconstructivist Approach.
  Shank, Gary
  Jan 1993
  29p.; In: Proceedings of Selected Research and Development 
Presentations at the Convention of the Association for Educational 
Communications and Technology Sponsored by the Research and Theory 
Division (15th, New Orleans, Louisiana, January 13-17, 1993); see IR 
016 300.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
  It is argued that the debate between qualitative and quantitative 
research for educational researchers is actually an argument between 
constructivism and positivism.  Positivism has been the basis for 
most quantitative research in education.  Two different things are 
actually meant when constructivism is discussed (constructivism and 
postconstructivism), making the reconciliation between constructivism 
and positivism nearly impossible.  Constructivism holds that learning 
is a process of building up structures of experience.  It is grounded 
in the works of Richard Rorty, Nelson Goodman, and Paul Feyerabend, 
whose philosophies are reviewed.  As articulated in educational 
research, constructivism is a species of pragmatism.  The second 
approach to constructivism, styled postconstructivism, is a model 
based on a split with the pragmatism with which constructivism is 
linked.  The postconstructivist model says that we do not construct 
reality, because it is so rich and significant that all we need to do 
is "read" it.  The postconstructivist alternative is to accept that 
we cannot impose our wills freely on reality, but that we are not 
slaves to some configuration of reality.  Research into educational 
technology can advance when constructivism gives up the notion that 
the order it seeks is simply imposed by the subjectivity of the 
inquirer.  (Contains 43 references.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: *Constructivism (Learning); Educational Philosophy; 
*Educational Research; Educational Researchers; Educational 
Technology; Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Models; 
*Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology; Research Problems; 
Statistical Analysis
  Identifiers: Positivism; *Postconstructivism; *Pragmatism

  EJ449549  CE524081
  Understanding and Validity in Qualitative Research.
  Maxwell, Joseph A.
  Harvard Educational Review, v62 n3 p279-300 Fall   1992
  ISSN: 0017-8055
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Details the philosophical and practical dimensions of five types of 
validity used in qualitative research: descriptive, interpretive, 
theoretical, generalizable, and evaluative, with corresponding issues 
of understanding.  Presents this typology as a checklist of the kinds 
of threats to validity that may arise.  (SK)
  Descriptors: Classification; *Comprehension; *Qualitative Research; 
  Identifiers: Generalizability

  ED363628  TM020629
  The Concept of Reliability as It Pertains to Data from Qualitative 
  Clonts, Jean G.
  Jan 1992
  22p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southwest 
Educational Research Association (Houston, TX, January 31-February 2, 
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  
  This paper presents a review of the literature on reliability in 
qualitative studies.  Reliability is defined as the extent to which 
studies can be replicated, using the same methods, and getting the 
same results.  It is the degree to which data are independent of the 
accidental circumstances of the research.  The review includes the 
following three major areas: (1) the use of the qualitative paradigm; 
(2) the traditional interpretation of reliability; and (3) various 
strategies for enhancing and insuring reliability.  In presenting 
advantages of a post-paradigmatic view, B. Thompson (1989) notes 
there are "myriad views of the qualitative paradigm" and urges 
researchers to be "conscious of the restrictions on insight imposed 
by their paradigm." Thus, several different perspectives are explored.  
Strategies are presented to enhance reliability through study design, 
data collection, and data analysis.  Other general categories of 
strategies that are explored are generalizability theory as an 
estimate of reliability and the presentation of research as the 
vehicle of assessing research credibility.  Three tables summarize 
points about research reliability.  (Contains 19 references.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: Data Collection; Estimation (Mathematics); 
*Generalizability Theory; Literature Reviews; Models; *Qualitative 
Research; *Reliability; Research Design; *Research Methodology; 
Research Problems
  Identifiers: *Research Replication

  EJ447774  SE548789
  Triangulation of Qualitative Methods: Heideggerian Hermeneutics and 
Grounded Theory.
  Wilson, Holly Skodol; Hutchinson, Sally A.
  Qualitative Health Research, v1 n2 p263-76 May   1991
  Available from Sage Publications, 2455 Teller Rd., Newbury Park, CA 
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Target Audience: Researchers
  Proposes the triangulation of two qualitative research methods, 
hermeneutics and grounded theory, to illuminate clinical realities 
that elude alternative approaches.  Discusses how hermeneutics 
reveals perceptual information about the uniqueness of shared 
meanings and common practices, and how grounded theory provides a 
conceptual framework useful for planning interventions and further 
quantitative research.  (32 references) (Author/JJK)
  Descriptors: Cognitive Style; Data Interpretation; *Hermeneutics; 
Higher Education; Interaction Process Analysis; Medical Education; 
*Medical Research; Nursing Education; *Nursing Research; Personal 
Narratives; Phenomenology; *Qualitative Research; *Research 
Methodology; Research Problems; Science Education
  Identifiers: *Grounded Theory; Research Trends; *Triangulation

 EJ438654  UD516340
  The Controversy about Quantification in Social Research: An 
Extension of Gage's "Historical" Sketch.
  Rizo, Felipe M.
  Educational Researcher, v20 n9 p9-12 Dec   1991
  ISSN: 0013-189X
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Discusses N. L. Gage's 1989 American Educational Research 
Association meeting address concerning the future of educational 
research and paradigm disputes.  Reviews of research paradigms and 
qualitative versus quantitative controversies do not suggest that 
paradigm confrontation will soon end.  Progress occurs in social 
science research methodology because of methodological controversy.  
  Descriptors: Educational History; *Educational Research; 
Educational Trends; *Models; *Qualitative Research; *Research 
Methodology; *Social Science Research; Trend Analysis
  Identifiers: Controversy; *Paradigm Argument; *Quantification 

  EJ429242  SO522152
  Validating Case Studies.
  Elliot, John
  Westminster Studies in Education, v13 p47-60   1990
  ISSN: 0140-6728
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
  Points out that variability in focus, method, and conceptual level 
of case studies causes difficulties in validating such studies.  
Notes method variations raise questions about validity.  Claims the 
validity of case studies lies in their usefulness as projective 
models.  States teachers can generate their own theories where 
practical educational judgments have to be made.  (NL)
  Descriptors: *Case Studies; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; 
Interviews; *Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology; Research 
Problems; School Surveys; *Validity
  Identifiers: United Kingdom

  EJ421482  EC232920
  Ethnographic Interviews for Information about Classrooms: An 
  Miller, Maurice
  Teacher Education and Special Education, v13 n3-4 p233-34 Sum-Fall 
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Target Audience: Researchers
  Ethnographic research methodology is reviewed as an emerging 
methodology in special education, with application made particularly 
to understanding regular classrooms into which students with learning 
handicaps may be integrated.  Suggested descriptive questions for an 
ethnographic interview are given, for use in research investigations 
and in depicting classrooms from the regular classroom teacher's 
perspective.  (Author/JDD)
  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; *Ethnography; 
*Interviews; *Learning Disabilities; Mainstreaming; *Mental 
Retardation; *Qualitative Research; *Questioning Techniques; Regular 
and Special Education Relationship; Research Methodology; Special 

  EJ391737  CG535815
  Alternate Research Paradigms: A Review and Teaching Proposal.
  Hoshmand, Lisa L. S. Tsoi
  Counseling Psychologist, v17 n1 p3-79 Jan   1989
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Reviews major paradigms that differ from positivistic research 
tradition of reductive experimentation.  Describes naturalistic-
ethnographic, phenomenological, and cybernetic paradigms in terms of 
their conceptual base, methodological characteristics, applications, 
types of research questions they can address, and strengths and 
limitations.  Proposed curriculum for teaching paradigms in graduate 
counseling psychology programs.  (Author/NB)
  Descriptors: *Counseling; Counselor Training; *Evaluation Methods; 
Graduate Students; Higher Education; *Models; Psychology; 
*Qualitative Research; Research Design; *Research Methodology
  Identifiers: *Counseling Psychology

  EJ386564  TM514269
  Qualitative Research Traditions: A British Response to Jacob.
  Atkinson, Paul; And Others
  Review of Educational Research, v58 n2 p231-50 Sum 
  This paper is a response to "Qualitative Research Traditions" by E. 
Jacob (1987) (see EJ 371 354).
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Exception is taken to Jacob's position; it is argued that a 
framework of distinct theoretical traditions is neither an accurate 
historical account of social science nor helpful to researchers.  
Classifying researchers and their projects into "traditions" is 
considered counterproductive.  In addition, Jacob's neglect of 
British research is criticized.  (TJH)
  Descriptors: *Educational Research; Educational Theories; Foreign 
Countries; Literature Reviews; *Qualitative Research
  Identifiers: United Kingdom

  EJ374522  UD513730
  Clarifying Qualitative Research: A Focus on Traditions.
  Jacob, Evelyn
  Educational Researcher, v17 n1 p16-24 Jan-Feb   1988
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  A major source of confusion in educational research comes when 
qualitative research is regarded as if it were one approach.  
Qualitative research has many varieties that can be identified and 
understood by using the notion of research traditions.  Six 
approaches from the social and behavioral sciences are compared.  
  Descriptors: *Educational Research; Ethnography; Ethnology; 
Participant Observation; *Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology; 
*Research Problems; *Research Tools; *Social Science Research

  ED304448  TM012671
  A General Survey of Qualitative Research Methodology.
  Cary, Rick
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Current definitions and philosophical foundations of qualitative 
research are presented; and designs, evaluation methods, and issues 
in application of qualitative research to education are discussed.  
The effects of positivism and the post-positivist era on qualitative 
research are outlined, and naturalist and positivist approaches are 
contrasted.  Contributions of anthropology, the social survey 
movement, sociology, and the social upheavals of the 1960's are 
noted; and the growth of qualitative research in the field of 
education during the past 30 years is briefly reviewed.  General 
traits characterizing qualitative research and naturalistic research 
are discussed.  Topics associated with design issues include inquiry 
focus, the fit of the paradigm, data collection and recording, 
successive phases of inquiry, instrumentation, data analysis, 
logistics, and trustworthiness.  Case studies and multi-site studies 
are discussed.  In terms of the evaluation of qualitative research, 
issues covered include truth value, applicability, dependability, and 
confirmability.  It is concluded that educational researchers need to 
be fluent in both qualitative and quantitative research methods.  
  Descriptors: *Educational Research; Literature Reviews; Naturalism; 
*Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology; Social Influences
  Identifiers: Positivism

  ED301118  HE021986
  The Qualitative Dimension.
  Lodge-Peters, Dianne S.
  Oct 1988
  19p.; Paper presented at Northern Rocky Mountain Educational 
Research Association (Jackson Hole, WY, October 1988).
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  The qualitative dimension of educational research methodology is 
explored, and the literature of qualitative methodology is reviewed 
so researchers may (1) understand more fully the qualitative 
dimension as it, in turn, fits within the parameters of educational 
research as a whole, and (2) have more informed access to the 
sometimes daunting array of literature that is available.  
Qualitative research is described as trying to uncover patterns which 
underlie social behavior (behavior which occurs in groups that have 
been ordered or organized over a reasonable length of time).  When it 
takes the form of schooling, education can be said to occur in social 
groups which, over time, exhibit observable behavior.  Qualitative 
inquiry delivers its truth value by a process called triangulation.  
Key to an understanding of qualitative inquiry is a consideration of 
grounded theory in which data drive theory, not vice versa.  It is 
noted that qualitative research is not monolithic.  Several pitfalls 
to avoid are noted, including how to cope with the chaos of data 
gathered without having made a priori assumptions.  The importance of 
preserving the language of the respondents is stressed.  It is noted 
that doing qualitative research entails persistently going back again 
and again to the sources in order to ensure that one has "got it 
right." Contains 22 references.  (SM)
  Descriptors: Behavioral Science Research; *Educational Research; 
Evaluation Methods; Higher Education; Organizations (Groups); 
*Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology; Social Science Research

  EJ381243  UD514005
  A Rainbow of Qualitative Approaches and Concerns.
  Fetterman, David M.
  Education and Urban Society, v20 n1 p4-8 Nov   1987
  Theme issue with title "Perennial Issues in Qualitative Research."
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Reviews the seven papers presented at a symposium entitled 
"Perennial Issues in Qualitative Research," part of the Annual 
Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San 
Francisco, California, 1986), and included in this issue.  Discusses 
the demonstrated usefulness of qualitative methods in educational 
research, and also points out the problems involved in their use.  
  Descriptors: Case Studies; *Educational Research; Ethnography; 
*Evaluation Methods; Literature Reviews; Naturalistic Observation; 
Participant Observation; *Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology; 
*Research Problems; Statistical Analysis; Teacher Education; *Urban 
  Identifiers: Positivism

  ED284874  TM870330
  Qualitative Approaches to Evaluating Education.
  Fetterman, David M.
  Apr 1987
  38p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (Washington, DC, April 20-24, 1987). 
Document contains light type.
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
  Target Audience: Researchers
  This paper explores the variety of qualitative methods available, 
in the context of a larger quantitative-qualitative debate in the 
field of educational evaluation.  Each approach is reviewed in terms 
of the work of its major proponents.  The dominant forms of 
qualitative evaluation include: (1) ethnography; (2) naturalistic 
inquiry; (3) generic pragmatic (sociological) inquiry; and (4) 
connoisseurship/criticism.  The last approach differs from the first 
three in deriving from an artistic conception of the teacher's role 
in the classroom, as opposed to science-based conceptions stressing 
the discovery of behavioral laws operating in educational settings.  
One example of a qualitative study is discussed: a national 
ethnographic evaluation of a program for dropouts.  New developments 
in methods include phenomenography, the mapping of the qualitatively 
different ways people experience and think about phenomena, as well 
as various metaphors for educational research and evaluation derived 
by analogy with other fields such as law, journalism, and economics.  
The growth of qualitative approaches is considered as a sign of 
greater ecumenism of methods and a possible paradigm shift in the 
qualitative direction.  A five-page reference list concludes the 
document.  (LPG)
  Descriptors: *Educational Assessment; *Ethnography; *Evaluation 
Methods; Literature Reviews; Models; *Naturalistic Observation; 
Phenomenology; *Qualitative Research; Research Methodology; 
Scientific Methodology

  EJ347376  FL517452
  The Interaction of Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to 
Research: A View of the Second Language Classroom.
  Chaudron, Craig
  TESOL Quarterly, v20 n4 p709-17 Dec   1986
  For related documents, see FL 517 449-451.
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Target Audience: Researchers
  Considers both qualitative and quantitative research approaches on 
second language learning, with focus on second language classroom 
research.  Concludes that both approaches are relevant to determining 
the important variables to investigate and the relationships those 
variables have to second language learning outcomes.  (Author/CB)
  Descriptors: Classroom Observation Techniques; *Classroom Research; 
Correlation; Interaction; Interdisciplinary Approach; *Language 
Research; *Qualitative Research; Research Methodology; Research Needs; 
Research Problems; *Second Language Learning; *Statistical Analysis

  EJ345394  EC191049
  Qualitative Research Methods in Special Education: Ethnography, 
Microethnography, and Ethology.
  Murray, Carola; And Others
  Journal of Special Education Technology, v7 n3 p15-31 Win 
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Target Audience: Researchers
  Three qualitative research methodologies (ethnography, 
microethnography, and ethology) are contrasted according to their 
disciplinary origins, methods for data collection and analysis, and 
use of audiovisual technology.  Studies that exemplify the special 
education applications of these methodologies are summarized.  
  Descriptors: *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; 
*Ethnography; *Ethology; *Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology; 
*Special Education

  EJ312319  IR513604
  The Qualitative versus Quantitative Debate: A Position.
  Splaine, John
  Media Management Journal, v4 n2 p25-30 Win   1985
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  
  Target Audience: Researchers
  Presents a sampling of commentary about epistemological function, 
about the diverse research processes that result from a particular 
philosophical position, and about technical implementation of various 
attempts to discover knowledge.  Discussion of the qualitative versus 
quantitative research debate highlights ethnography, controlling for 
bias, and the quantitative-qualitative nexus.  (44 references) (MBR)
  Descriptors: *Comparative Analysis; Educational Philosophy; 
Epistemology; Literature Reviews; Opinion Papers; *Research 
Methodology; Research Problems
  Identifiers: *Qualitative Research; *Quantitative Research

  ED258985  TM850350
  Closing Down the Conversation: The End of the Quantitative-
Qualitative Debate among Educational Inquirers.
  Smith, John K.; Heshusius, Lous
  Mar 1985
  33p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (69th, Chicago,IL, March 31-April 
  EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
  Educational researchers have claimed that the quantitative and 
qualitative approaches to educational inquiry are, indeed, compatible.  
However, it would be unfortunate to discontinue this debate.  The 
quantitative-qualitative debate began with the interpretive approach 
to social inquiry.  Dilthey argued that since cultural/moral sciences 
differ from natural/physical sciences, the context of the human 
experimenters' subjectivity, emotions, and values is significant.  
Concerned by inconsistent research interpretations, Weber 
unsuccessfully tried to synthesize a compromise between the two 
perspectives.  Still, two distinct perspectives remained: the 
quantitative, realistic tradition describing independently existing 
social reality as it really is, and the qualitative, interpretive 
tradition assuming that social reality is mind-constructed according 
to internal coherence and social conditioning.  More researchers 
considered the debate: Rist proposed a detente; Guba pursued criteria 
for qualitative or naturalistic inquiry.  LeCompte and Goetz, Miles 
and Huberman, and Lynch de-emphasized the paradigmatic differences, 
implying that qualitative research is a procedural variation of 
quantitative inquiry.  There are problems with this trend.  Although 
the two approaches may be combined, each one's differing logic of 
justification affects the determination of validity.  Other 
intellectual disciplines are also concerned with this debate.  (GDC)
  Descriptors: *Educational Research; Educational Researchers; 
Experimenter Characteristics; Literature Reviews; *Reliability; 
*Research Design; Research Methodology; *Research Problems; *Validity
  Identifiers: *Qualitative Research; *Quantitative Research

  EJ333779  TM511186
  Quantity and Quality in Evaluation Research: A Divergent View.
  Bednarz, Dan
  Evaluation and Program Planning, v8 n4 p289-306   1985
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
  Many evaluation researchers are now attempting to synthesize 
quantitative and qualitative approaches.  Although such efforts 
appear to carry great promise, some subtleties and incompatibilities 
of these approaches are perhaps being overlooked.  Implications for 
social inquiry are discussed.  (Author/GDC)
  Descriptors: Data Collection; *Evaluation Methods; Evaluation 
Problems; *Qualitative Research; *Research Design; *Research 
Methodology; Research Problems; *Social Science Research
  Identifiers: *Quantitative Research

  ED320350  EC231159
  On Doing a Naturalistic Evaluation.
  Kennedy, Mary F.; And Others
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Target Audience: Researchers
  The paper describes a naturalistic evaluation study of an 
enrichment program for gifted learners in Newfoundland.  The pull-out 
program (for two half days out of six) is described in terms of 
audience concerns and issues, standards, program components, and data-
generating techniques (observations and interviews).  The evaluation 
led to a report pointing to specific strengths and weaknesses and 
went beyond assessment of the impact of the program to thorough 
description and judgment.  Also discussed is the naturalistic 
approach to program evaluation in general considering its emergent 
design, rigor factors inhibiting naturalistic evaluation (such as the 
non-quantitative results), cost factors inhibiting naturalistic 
evaluation, and training factors inhibiting naturalistic evaluation.  
Contains 10 references.  (DB)
  Descriptors: Enrichment Activities; *Evaluation Methods; Foreign 
Countries; *Gifted; *Naturalistic Observation; *Program Evaluation; 
*Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology
  Identifiers: Newfoundland

 ED240092  SP023779
  Qualitative Research--Another Way of Knowing.
  Rogers, Vincent R.
  27p.; In: Hosford, Philip L., Ed. Using What We Know About 
Teaching. Virginia, Association for Supervision and Curriculum 
Development, 1984. p85-111.
  Available From: Not available separately, see SP 023 775.
  Document Not Available from EDRS.
  Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
  Qualitative research is based on the direct observation of human 
activity and interaction in an ongoing, naturalistic fashion.  
Qualitative researchers are concerned with the internal life of 
schools; what is really occurring in classrooms, corridors, 
cafeterias, and playgrounds.  Qualitative researchers look at what 
people ordinarily take for granted with fresh eyes and see events, 
with all their subtleties and nuances.  Qualitative researchers 
participate and observe, or simply observe; they conduct concentrated 
studies of single individuals and groups; they interview, use field 
notes, audio and videotaped data, film, personal and official 
documents, photographs, various forms of unobstrusive data as well as 
quantifiable data.  They study uses of physical space and analyze 
book and magazine content.  They use sampling techniques, 
occasionally compare one group with another, and often combine 
qualitative and quantitative research methodologies.  Their studies 
may last from a few months to a few years, but their goal remains to 
observe and study human activity in its natural setting.  The author 
provides short synopses of 13 education related qualitatively based 
studies.  He also summarizes six major qualitative research studies.  
Responses to this paper are offered by William D. Corbett and Anne 
Roney.  (JMK)
  Descriptors: Data Collection; *Educational Environment; 
*Educational Research; Elementary Secondary Education; Group Dynamics; 
*Human Relations; Individual Development; *Interaction; *Observation; 
Research Methodology; Research Utilization; Student Teacher 
  Identifiers: *Qualitative Research; Research Practice Relationship

  EJ278833  SP512809
  Applications of Qualitative Methods to Program Evaluation in 
  Hatch, J. Amos
  Viewpoints in Teaching and Learning, v59 n1 p1-11 Win 
  Available From: Reprint: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
  This article explores the utilization of qualitative methodologies 
in program evaluation, the rationale for using these approaches, and 
the potential qualitative applications within evaluation.  It also 
describes the "scientific" and "artistic" qualitative methodologies, 
suggests practical qualitative application, and calls for a 
conceptual shift in methodological decision making in evaluation.  
  Descriptors: *Evaluation Methods; *Measurement Techniques; Methods 
Research; *Program Evaluation; Program Validation; *Research 
Methodology; Research Utilization
  Identifiers: *Qualitative Research

[Table of Contents]

Other Recent ERIC Documents Citations re: Qualitative Research
  EJ531133  IR533585
  Focus Group Interviews: A Data Collection Methodology.
  Connaway, Lynn Silipigni
  Library Administration & Management, v10 n4 p231-39 Fall 
  ISSN: 0888-4463
  Available From: UMI
  Summarizes the literature explaining focus group interview 
techniques and provides ideas on how they can be used for needs 
assessment and program evaluation in libraries and information 
centers.  Discussion includes focus group session objectives, the 
level of moderator involvement, various methodologies, data analysis, 
and reporting in qualitative or quantitative contexts.  Lists 40 
recommended sources.  (LAM)
  Descriptors: Data Analysis; Data Collection; *Evaluation Methods; 
*Focus Groups; Information Centers; *Interviews; *Libraries; Library 
Services; Needs Assessment; *Qualitative Research; Reports; *
Research Methodology
  Identifiers: Moderator Variables

  ED400543  CS215516
  Ethics and Representation in Qualitative Studies of Literacy.
  Mortensen, Peter, Ed.; Kirsch, Gesa E., Ed.
  347p.; With a collaborative foreword led by Andrea A. Lunsford and 
an afterword by Ruth E. Ray.
  ISBN: 0-8141-1596-9
  Available From: National Council of Teachers of English, 1111 W. 
Kenyon Road, Urbana, IL 61801-1096 (Stock No. 15969: $21.95 members, 
$28.95 nonmembers).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC14 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: COLLECTION (020);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
  Reflecting on the practice of qualitative literacy research, this 
book presents 14 essays that address the most pressing questions 
faced by qualitative researchers today: how to represent others and 
themselves in research narratives; how to address ethical dilemmas in 
research-participant relations; and how to deal with various 
rhetorical, institutional, and historical constraints on research.  
After a foreword ("Considering Research Methods in Composition and 
Rhetoric" by Andrea A. Lunsford and others) and an introduction 
("Reflections on Methodology in Literacy Studies" by the editors), 
essays in the book are (1) "Seduction and Betrayal in Qualitative 
Research" (Thomas Newkirk); (2) "Still-Life: Representations and 
Silences in the Participant-Observer Role" (Brenda Jo Brueggemann); 
(3) "Dealing with the Data: Ethical Issues in Case Study Research" 
(Cheri L. Williams); (4) "'Everything's Negotiable': Collaboration 
and Conflict in Composition Research" (Russel K. Durst and Sherry 
Cook Stanforth); (5) "Dilemmas of Fidelity: Qualitative Research in 
the Classroom" (Helen Dale); (6) "Ethnography and the Problem of the 
'Other'" (Patricia A. Sullivan); (7) "Turning in upon Ourselves: 
Positionality, Subjectivity, and Reflexivity in Case Study and 
Ethnographic Research" (Elizabeth Chiseri-Strater); (8) "Constructing 
Voices in Writing Research: Developing Participatory Approaches to 
Situated Inquiry" (Ann M. Blakeslee and others); (9) "A Text for Many 
Voices: Representing Diversity in Reports of Naturalistic Research" 
(Lucille Parkinson McCarthy and Stephen M. Fishman); (10) "Culture on 
the Page: Experience, Rhetoric, and Aesthetics in Ethnographic 
Writing" (Bonnie S. Sunstein); (11) "Engendering Ethnography: 
Insights from the Feminist Critique of Postmodern Anthropology" 
(Roxanne D. Mountford); (12) "Writing, Rap, and Representation: 
Problematic Links between Texts and Experience" (Jabari Mahiri); (13) 
"Social and Institutional Power Relationships in Studies of Workplace 
Writing" (Jennie Dautermann); and (14) "Ethics, Institutional Review 
Boards, and the Involvement of Human Participants in Composition 
Research" (Paul V. Anderson).  An afterword ("Ethics and 
Representation in Teacher Research" by Ruth E. Ray) is attached.  
Each chapter contains references.  (RS)
  Descriptors: *Case Studies; Elementary Secondary Education; *Ethics; 
*Ethnography; Higher Education; Participant Observation; *Qualitative 
Research; *Research Methodology; Research Problems; Social Influences; 
*Writing Research
  Identifiers: Researcher Role

  ED399290  TM025597
  Twenty-first Century Tools for Qualitative Data Analysis.
  Wiley, Susan D.; And Others
  Apr 1996
  18p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
  A way to support the educational ethnographer in developing a 
perspective on the art of qualitative research during an introductory 
course on qualitative research methods is explored through a study of 
how novice researchers begin to learn the elements and processes of 
qualitative research.  A second purpose of the study is to 
investigate the use of a new generation of computer software and how 
it supports or constrains the use of qualitative data.  Students in a 
class on qualitative research methods at the University of California 
at Santa Barbara (12 in a morning session and 14 in an evening 
session) practiced the steps in the research cycle while carrying out 
a simulation of a study of the life of graduate students in education.  
Students were introduced, through lecture, readings, and 
demonstration, to common research tools, such as audiotape recording, 
word processing, and software for qualitative research.  Study data 
provide evidence that the students practiced the "how" of qualitative 
research in a way that resulted in a beginning level of understanding 
the "why." Researchers predicted that students would recall the 
course as a concrete experience to build on when encountering 
concepts and understandings of qualitative research in the future.  
It was also apparent that computer capabilities could be used to a 
much greater advantage for teaching and doing qualitative research.  
Appendixes present the guided interview schedule, a guide for 
selecting software for data analysis, and a chart of views for 
analysis.  (Contains one figure and two tables.) (SLD)
  Descriptors: Comprehension; *Computer Software; *Data Analysis; 
*Ethnography; *Graduate Students; Higher Education; *Qualitative 
Research; Researchers; *Research Methodology; Simulation; Teaching 

  EJ528774  UD519382
  Working in the Interpretive Zone: Conceptualizing Collaboration in 
Qualitative Research Teams.
  Wasser, Judith Davidson; Bresler, Liora
  Educational Researcher, v25 n5 p5-15 Jun-Jul   1996
  Research supported by the Bureau of Educational Research and the 
Research Board of the University of Illinois.
  ISSN: 0013-189X
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Formulates the idea of the "interpretive zone" as a way to describe 
the space in which collaborative interpretation of research unfolds.  
Because of the importance of teamwork to qualitative research, the 
interpretive zone becomes a critical location for future 
methodological inquiry and examination of the dynamics of group 
research.  (SLD)
  Descriptors: *Cooperation; Evaluation Methods; *Group Dynamics; 
Interprofessional Relationship; *Qualitative Research; *Research 
Methodology; *Teamwork

  EJ527851  HE535480
  Criteria Used for Qualitative Research in the Refereeing Process.
  Zaruba, Karen E.; And Others
  Review of Higher Education, v19 n4 p435-60 Sum   1996
  ISSN: 0162-5748
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  A study investigated the standards used in refereeing scholarly 
journal articles to judge qualitative research methods.  Examination 
of reviewers' critiques of 57 manuscripts submitted to the "Review of 
Higher Education" revealed 7 themes that reviewers focused on, and 
also found reviewers emphasized good writing and clear articulation 
of all elements of the study and its execution.  (Author/MSE)
  Descriptors: Evaluation Criteria; Higher Education; Peer Evaluation; 
Postsecondary Education as a Field of Study; *Qualitative Research; *
Research Methodology; *Scholarly Journals; Standards; *Technical 
Writing; *Writing for Publication; *Writing Skills
  Identifiers: *Review of Higher Education

  EJ523671  SE555909
  What Counts as Quality in Qualitative Research? (Guest Editorial).
  Roberts, Douglas A.
  Science Education, v80 n3 p243-48 Jun   1996
  ISSN: 0036-8326
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Describes the history and current status of qualitative research in 
science education research.  Discusses the issue of the quality of 
research.  (JRH)
  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; Foreign Countries; 
*Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology; Science Education; 
Statistical Analysis
  Identifiers: Canada

  EJ521370  CS751517
  On Writing Qualitative Research.
  Alvermann, Donna E.; And Others
  Reading Research Quarterly, v31 n1 p114-20 Jan-Mar 
  ISSN: 0034-0553
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Extends a conversation begun in response to issues the authors 
identified in their own work as writers of qualitative research and 
in the works of others.  Discusses theory, methodology, 
representation and legitimation, and writing and write-up of 
qualitative research.  (RS)
  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; 
*Qualitative Research; *Reading Research; *Research Methodology; 
Writing Processes; *Writing Research

  EJ518278  HE534892
  The Hegemony of the Narrative: Reflections on the Contours of 
Social Science Research.
  Cizek, Gregory J.
  Review of Higher Education, v19 n2 p227-36 Win   1996
  ISSN: 0162-5748
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  POSITION PAPER (120);  
  A discussion of the increased use of qualitative methods in social 
science research looks at four emerging issues: the nature of 
research, the growth in status of the narrative in research, 
political influences on the research process, and the nature of the 
relationship between the philosophy of science and applied research 
practice.  Some approaches to the problems are discussed.  (MSE)
  Descriptors: Higher Education; Political Influences; *Qualitative 
Research; Researchers; *Research Methodology; *Research Problems; 
Research Skills; *Scientific Principles; *Social Science Research; 
Trend Analysis

  EJ525664  CG548602
  Understanding and Evaluating Qualitative Research.
  Ambert, Anne-Marie; And Others
  Journal of Marriage and the Family, v57 n4 p879-93 Nov 
  ISSN: 0022-2445
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Presents an overview of the goals and procedures of qualitative 
research, and discusses linkages between epistemologies and 
methodology.  Reviews possible guidelines involved in the several 
steps of the evaluation process of qualitative research, emphasizing 
naturalistic research with families.  Reviews common problems with 
qualitative research.  (JPS)
  Descriptors: Anthropology; Epistemology; Ethnography; Evaluation 
Methods; Field Studies; Higher Education; *Naturalistic Observation; 
Participant Observation; *Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology; 
Research Problems
  Identifiers: *Family Research

  EJ520790  SO527274
  Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research Methodology.
  Bresler, Liora
  Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, n126 p29-
41 Fall   1995
  ISSN: 0010-9894
  Target Audience: Researchers
  Describes specific problems related to the issues of 
confidentiality and subjectivity in a qualitative research project 
concerning social dynamics in a music education classroom.  Argues 
that the nature of the observer/participant relationship creates 
complex problems involving confidentiality and subjectivity.  (MJP)
  Descriptors: *Confidentiality; Educational Research; *Ethics; 
Higher Education; *Music Education; Observation; *Qualitative 
Research; *Research Methodology; *Research Problems; Secondary 
Education; Teacher Role
  Identifiers: *Subjectivity

  EJ516409  HE534707
  Assumptions Underlying Quantitative and Qualitative Research: 
Implications for Institutional Research.
  Hathaway, Russel S.
  Research in Higher Education, v36 n5 p535-62 Oct   1995
  ISSN: 0361-0365
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Target Audience: Researchers
  This article suggests that the choice by institutional researchers 
to use qualitative or quantitative research is often dictated by 
time, money, resources, and staff and not necessarily with an 
understanding of the underlying philosophical assumptions structuring 
beliefs about methodology, knowledge, and reality.  These underlying 
assumptions are examined to foster researcher awareness of the 
appropriateness of different research methods.  (MSE)
  Descriptors: Beliefs; Comparative Analysis; Decision Making; 
Epistemology; Higher Education; *Institutional Research; *Qualitative 
Research; *Research Methodology; *Statistical Analysis

  EJ511647  CS750703
  On Whether to Believe: Extending the Dialogue.
  Anderson, Thomas H.; West, Charles K.
  Reading Research Quarterly, v30 n4 p1054-58 Oct-Dec 
  For J. Myers's original article, see EJ 451 347. For a series of 
responses, see the previous issue of this journal (v30 n3).
  ISSN: 0034-0553
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Extends the discussion of an article by J. Myers published in an 
earlier issue of this journal.  Suggests that Myers's response to 
earlier critiques failed to address major criticisms.  Readdresses 12 
criticisms regarding research methodology, the role of the 
researcher, researcher-subject relationship, standards for 
researchers, and the notion of subversion among scholars who 
criticize the work of others.  (RS)
  Descriptors: Elementary Education; Epistemology; *Qualitative 
Research; *Reading Research; *Research Methodology; *Research 
Problems; Standards
  Identifiers: *Literacy Research; *Researcher Role; Researcher 
Subject Relationship

  EJ508090  CS750212
  Commentary: An Analysis of a Qualitative Investigation: A Matter of 
Whether to Believe.
  Anderson, Thomas H.; West, Charles K.
  Reading Research Quarterly, v30 n3 p562-69 Jul-Sep 
  ISSN: 0034-0553
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Challenges many of the specific ideas and actions discussed in J. 
Myers's "The Social Contexts of School and Personal Literacy," 
published in this journal (volume 27, pages 297-333).  Argues that 
the investigator appeared to be the sole source through all analyses, 
many assumptions were either internally of externally inconsistent, 
and the effects of figurative language were not monitored.  (RS)
  Descriptors: Elementary Education; Experimenter Characteristics; 
*Qualitative Research; *Reading Research; *Research Design; *
Research Problems

  EJ505081  EC611266
  Considerations for Readers of Qualitative Research. Editorial.
  Ferguson, Dianne L.; Halle, James W.
  Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, v20 
n1 p1-2 Spr   1995
  ISSN: 0274-9483
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  This article distinguishes between "using qualitative methods" and 
"doing qualitative research." It highlights the qualitative 
approaches of the authors of five articles in this issue and 
considers the challenges of this type of qualitative research 
manuscript for the editorial process.  (DB)
  Descriptors: *Disabilities; Editing; *Qualitative Research; 
Research Methodology; *Special Education

  EJ504329  TM518772
  Special Feature. The Quantitative-Qualitative Debates: 
"DeKuhnifying" the Conceptual Context.
  Shadish, William R., Ed.; And Others
  Evaluation and Program Planning, v18 n1 p47-96 Jan-Mar 
  Special section.
  ISSN: 0149-7189
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: COLLECTION (020);  CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  JOURNAL 
  The five articles of this special section focus on the quantitative-
qualitative debate in program evaluation.  This section focuses on 
philosophical aspects of program evaluation, making it clear that the 
issues are far more complex than the simple quantitative-qualitative 
dichotomy described by T. S. Kuhn (1970) implies.  (SLD)
  Descriptors: *Evaluation Methods; *Mathematics; *Program Evaluation; 
*Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology; *Statistical Analysis
  Identifiers: *Mathematical Thinking

  EJ503556  JC507008
  Objectivity, Subjectivity, and Relativism: The Case for Qualitative 
Methodologies in Educational Research.
  Trifonas, Peter
  Journal of Educational Thought/Revue de la Pensee Educative, v29 n1 
p81-101 Apr   1995
  ISSN: 0022-0701
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Addresses epistemological questions about the nature of ontology, 
theoretical questions concerning the knowledge of sense perceptions, 
and methodological questions regarding the scientific truth-effect of 
procedures integral to arguments for and against the use of 
qualitative forms of analysis as a feasible and effective means for 
conducting educational research.  (61 references) (MAB)
  Descriptors: *Educational Philosophy; *Epistemology; *Ethnography; 
Evaluation Methods; *Philosophy; *Qualitative Research; *Research 
Methodology; Statistical Analysis

  EJ500691  CE527534
  Beyond Ethnography: Expanding Our Understanding and Criteria for 
Qualitative Research.
  Hasselkus, Betty R.
  Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, v15 n2 p75-84 Spr 
  ISSN: 0276-1599
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Many different methods are termed qualitative research.  A 
continuum of research methods avoids the need to classify research as 
either scientific or naturalistic.  Each method may be assessed in 
terms of degree of constraints on possible outputs and degree of 
constraints on antecedent variables.  (SK)
  Descriptors: *Ethnography; Naturalistic Observation; *Occupational 
Therapy; *Qualitative Research; *Research Design; Research 

  EJ497233  CE527329
  What Can You Tell from an N of 1?: Issues of Validity and 
Reliability in Qualitative Research.
  Merriam, Sharan B.
  PAACE Journal of Lifelong Learning, v4 p51-60   1995
  Available from Pennsylvania Assn. for Adult and Continuing 
Education, PO Box 3796, Harrisburg, PA 17105-3796.
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  Deals with issues of validity and reliability in qualitative 
research in education.  Discusses philosophical assumptions 
underlying the concepts of internal validity, reliability, and 
external validity or generalizability.  Presents strategies congruent 
with a qualitative research perspective for ensuring the rigor and 
trustworthiness of findings.  (Author)
  Descriptors: *Educational Research; *Qualitative Research; 
*Reliability; *Validity

  EJ495830  CE527257
  The New Paradigm in Research on Teaching.
  Ornstein, Allan C.
  Educational Forum, v59 n2 p124-29 Win   1995
  ISSN: 0013-1725
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
  The new concept of research on teaching includes such methods as 
storytelling, narrative, and autobiography, relies on language and 
dialog, and affirms the centrality and wisdom of teachers.  Teachers 
are able to express their views in their own language, and their 
knowledge and expertise are respected.  (SK)
  Descriptors: *Educational Research; *Qualitative Research; Research 
Design; *Research Methodology; *Teaching (Occupation)
  Identifiers: *Teacher Researchers

  ED392734  SO026076
  Thoughts on the Qualitative-Quantitative Debate.
  Brophy, Jere
  Nov 1995
  19p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council 
for the Social Studies (Chicago, IL, November 1995).
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150);  POSITION PAPER (120)
  Target Audience: Researchers
  This paper assesses the value of research, not on its methodology 
type but on its goal and accomplishments.  It outlines an idea for 
developing a knowledge base capable of informing teacher education 
program planning and other educational policy decisions.  Studies are 
described that advance knowledge about causal relationships between 
classroom processes and student outcomes, especially studies that 
document and describe desirable practices.  The paper is divided into 
the following sections: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Factors that 
Contribute to the Value of Research Studies"; (3) "Quantitative 
Methods"; (4) "Qualitative Methods"; (5) "Shift in Focus from Methods 
to Questions"; and (6) "Needed Research in Social Studies." (EH)
  Descriptors: Educational Research; Higher Education; *Qualitative 
Research; *Research Methodology; *Social Science Research; 
*Statistical Analysis; *Statistics

  ED390923  TM024347
  Ethical and Political Issues in Qualitative Research from a 
Philosophical Point of View.
  Clark, John A.
  Apr 1995
  6p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 
  EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
  The moral rules that come into play when researchers engage in 
qualitative inquiry are explored.  Qualitative researchers first need 
to consider the aims of the research and how it is conducive to the 
educational good.  A primary methodological consideration is to 
obtain the informed consent of those who participate in the research.  
The social context of the inquiry, the age of the participants, 
potential harm to the researcher, and the question of whether covert 
qualitative research can be justified are problems that must be 
considered.  Another methodological concern is the relationship that 
ought to exist between the researcher and the participants.  In 
addition, qualitative researchers are ethically bound to have a solid 
grasp of the philosophical and conceptual features of the work.  A 
final question is that of the outcomes of the research and the use of 
the findings.  (SLD)
  Descriptors: Educational Philosophy; *Educational Research; *Ethics; 
Foreign Countries; *Political Issues; *Qualitative Research; 
Researchers; Research Methodology; Research Utilization; Social 
  Identifiers: *Informed Consent

  EJ495750  UD518305
  Qualitative Research as Jazz.
  Oldfather, Penny; West, Jane
  Educational Researcher, v23 n8 p22-26 Nov   1994
  ISSN: 0013-189X
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  
  Develops a metaphor of qualitative research as jazz to illuminate 
qualities that are embedded in the processes of qualitative inquiry.  
The jazz metaphor is said to create a pathway for making explicit the 
tacit understandings that permit qualitative research to flow and to 
be guided by the new findings and emerging understandings it uncovers.  
  Descriptors: Comparative Analysis; Criticism; Improvisation; *Jazz; 
Learning Processes; Metacognition; Metaphors; *Qualitative Research; 
*Research Methodology; Research Skills
  Identifiers: Knowledge Development; Metaphorical Thought

  EJ493319  IR529622
  Qualitative Research Methods: A Review of Major Stages, Data 
Analysis Techniques, and Quality Controls.
  Westbrook, Lynn
  Library & Information Science Research, v16 n3 p241-54 Sum 
  ISSN: 0740-8188
  Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120);  PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141);  
  Examines the basic tenets of qualitative, or naturalistic, research 
methods in terms of their grounding in social science and their value 
to library and information science research.  Topics discussed 
include the research problems; data collection, including interviews; 
data analysis, including content analysis; theory development; and 
ensuring integrity through validity techniques.  (44 references) 
  Descriptors: Content Analysis; Data Analysis; Integrity; Interviews; 
*Library Research; Naturalistic Observation; *Qualitative Research; *
Research Methodology; Social Science Research; Validity
  Identifiers: Information Science Research; Theory Development

  EJ485400  RC510013
  Some Issues in Constructing, Managing, and Using Large Qualitative 
  Mead, James V.
  Midwestern Educational Researcher, v7 n2 p8-14 Spr 
  ISSN: 1056-3997
  Discusses important factors to consider before deciding on hardware 
or software to use in building qualitative databases.  Examines using 
the computer to store and retrieve text, store and retrieve graphics, 
analyze text, analyze graphic materials, distribute data stored on 
one machine to others, allow researchers access to data from remote 
sites, and provide innovative presentations of analysis.  (KS)
  Descriptors: Computer Software; *Computer System Design; Data 
Analysis; Database Design; *Databases; Data Collection; Data 
Processing; Educational Research; Higher Education; *Qualitative 
  Identifiers: *Database Development; *Data Management

  EJ484368  TM517923
  The Qualitative-Quantitative Debate: New Perspectives.
  Reichardt, Charles S., Ed.; Rallis, Sharon F., Ed.
  New Directions for Program Evaluation, n61 p1-98 Spr 
  ISSN: 0164-7989
  Available From: UMI
  Document Type: SERIAL (022);  EVALUATIVE REPORT (142);  JOURNAL 
  The eight articles of this issue examine the nature of differences 
that arise between qualitative and quantitative researchers in 
program evaluation in terms of goals and epistemologies.  The origins 
of these differences and their consequences are explored.  Authors 
represent both perspectives but do not defend their ideological turfs.  
  Descriptors: Conflict; Epistemology; Evaluation Methods; *Ideology; 
Mathematics Tests; Models; Objectives; *Program Evaluation; 
*Qualitative Research; *Research Methodology; *Statistical Analysis; 
Test Interpretation
  Identifiers: Quantitative Research

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